The Integration Report, issue 18

April 8, 2009

This TIR is the second in a two-part analysis of the UCLA Civil Rights Project’s (CRP) recent report on the state of segregation in American schools. Based largely on data from CRP research, this TIR examines the increasingly urgent topic of school integration in our nation’s suburban communities. This new frontier for racial integration – or conversely, segregation – poses a challenge to policymakers, district officials, and education stakeholders across the country.

Since 1950, more people have lived in suburban areas than anywhere else in America.1 Many suburbs contain large school-aged populations, and in five of America’s largest metropolitan areas a majority of the under-18 population is nonwhite. In general, today the suburbs of large cities educate an average student population that is more than a quarter Black and Latino, while the suburbs of mid-size urban areas (cities with under 250,000 people) still educate a relatively small nonwhite population.2 Across all of these suburban spaces, the segregation of students of color is becoming increasingly evident.

Historical arc of racial change in the suburbs

The growing diversity of suburban school systems stands in contrast to the racial and socioeconomic isolation of many central city districts. The image of suburbia, rooted in the prevalent civil rights era description of a “White suburban noose” surrounding a primarily Black urban core – a result of numerous discriminatory policies implemented at all levels of government3 – was a reality for many years, particularly after the Supreme Court handed down the 1974 Milliken decision. The Milliken ruling released many northern suburbs from bearing responsibility for existing patterns of residential segregation and produced a system that allowed arbitrarily-drawn district lines to isolate urban school systems by race and poverty. At the same time, Milliken closed off suburban schools to the possibility of a diverse student body.

Yet, after the late 1970s, lured by newer housing, green spaces and better schools, the steady outward migration of middle class Black, Latino and Asian families has resulted in a present-day situation where nearly half the population of nonwhite students in large metropolitan areas are attending public schools in the suburbs.4 While their families may have left the urban core for the promise of a better life in the suburbs, research suggests that all suburban spaces are not created equal. Predatory lending, along with real estate practices that help “steer” families of color into small sectors of suburbia, are helping promote the rise of segregation in many older suburbs.5

As the former “Leave It To Beaver” suburb fades into the background, areas around our large urban centers have become increasingly complex. Patterns of development (including far-flung exurban6 sprawl in remote edges of metropolitan areas) and zoning laws facilitate a checkerboard landscape of commercial businesses, old post-World War II housing and newer neighborhoods in the outlying areas. University of Minnesota Professor of Law, Myron Orfield, suggests that several different types of suburbs characterize most metropolitan spaces: the at-risk segregated and the at-risk older communities, the at-risk low density communities, the at-risk developing suburb and the affluent job center.7

The majority of these communities have been labeled “at-risk” for significant reasons. At-risk segregated and older communities tend to be located in the inner ring of the suburbs, burdened with many of the social issues characteristic of central cities, but without the resources and capacity to begin to address them. Adding to their woes, inner-ring suburbs lack the potential historical and cultural lure of museums, theater, landmarks, restaurants, along with other attractions, that are traditionally located in urban centers.

Low-density communities and developing suburbs in the outer rings experience a different set of problems. Development that outpaces necessary infrastructure can lead to overcrowded schools, snarled traffic and ill-functioning sewage systems.8 As a result, the affluent job centers, comprising a small minority of a metro area’s population while benefiting from a great deal of wealth, are currently the only winners in the zero-sum game of fragmented metropolitan areas.

This multifaceted demographic transitioning of the suburbs has important implications for neighborhoods and governmental services, including public schools. On one hand, the growing racial and socioeconomic diversity of the suburbs heralds great possibilities for stably integrated housing and educational experiences. On the other, without strong leadership and regional policymaking, American suburbs will continue to replicate patterns of isolation found in many urban cores.

School segregation in today’s suburbs9

For children of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, the suburban schooling experience can be very isolated. Partially a result of the trends noted above, as well as the fact that many suburbs were not included in desegregation plans, racial segregation in the suburbs is intensifying.

The rings expanding outward from the nation’s largest cities – places like New York, Los Angeles, Detroit, Boston, and Atlanta – contain highly diverse school-aged populations. For many of these places, the rapid rise in racial diversity has coincided with intensifying segregation.
Suburbanization trends, like other population trends, vary significantly across regions of the country. Metro areas in the South and West are the most diverse, containing substantial percentages of Black, Latino and Asian students. The White suburban population in these regions tends to mirror the overall percentage of White students in the metropolitan community, suggesting that Whites (and other racial/ethnic groups) are evenly distributed across the region. Older cities are more likely to contain a disproportionate number of White suburban students – a continuation of earlier patterns of suburban settlement. For example, in Detroit, D.C., Baltimore and Pittsburgh, over 90% of White school-aged children lived in the suburbs.

Across all U.S. suburbs, more than half of White suburban students are in schools that are 80-100% White. Meanwhile, the reverse pattern is true for Black students in the suburbs: over half attend schools that are less than 50% White. Latino students experience the most suburban segregation. More than three quarters of Latino schoolchildren attend schools that educate a majority of nonwhite students. Finally, Asian students fall along two different sides of a spectrum that comprises a minority group made up of many varied nationalities. While some groups of Asian students are highly privileged – and highly integrated – other groups are not. Roughly 20% of Asians students are in schools that contain largely White enrollments, while 43% attend schools that are majority nonwhite.

We see, then, that students from different racial/ethnic groups experience varying levels of integration. Latino students are the most segregated in the American suburbs, followed closely by African American students. Asian students occupy an intermediate position: some ethnic groups face high levels of segregation, while still others are very integrated.

Conclusions and implications

The suburbs have become a critical battleground in the struggle for integrated neighborhoods and schools. Their growing racial and socioeconomic diversity heralds great possibilities for stably integrated housing and educational experiences. Yet, existing patterns of racial isolation and inequality in our suburbs suggest that much work is ahead. Left unchecked, the blight and neglect typical of many urban areas will continue to march into their suburban rings. Many middle class families of color who moved to the suburbs for more opportunities ironically now face patterns of isolation similar to those they left behind in central cities. Fortunately, prompted by the increasingly urgent need for more condensed metro areas, we have new opportunities to create healthier metro regions – and schools – with innovative planning and design. Proactive policies to truly enforce fair housing laws – combined with strong neighborhood efforts to market diversity as an attractive and important feature of community schools – could help stem the reproduction of central city segregation. In low density at-risk suburbs, mixed income and affordable housing could help generate more people along with more diversity. For growing suburbs, the Supreme Court’s decision 2007 in PICS recognized the ability of districts to site new schools and to redraw attendance lines in a way that facilitates racial diversity. These types of civil rights policies – united with a sweeping regional vision – will need to characterize future metropolitan planning and government.

For next time…
The next issue of TIR will highlight emerging research presented at the recent conference, “Looking to the Future: Legal and Policy Options for Racially Integrated Education in the South and the Nation.

Genevieve Siegel-Hawley
The Integration Report

1 Morgan, D., Robter England and John Pelissero (2006). Managing Urban America. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
2 Orfield, G. and Frankenberg, E. The Last have Become the First: Rural and Small Towns Lead the Way on Desegregation. UCLA Civil Rights Project, retrieved on June 6, 2009 from
3 Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press and Massey, Douglas (2008) in Carr, J. H., & Kutty, N. K., Eds. “Origins of Economic Disparities: The Historical Role of Housing Segregation” in Segregation: the rising costs for America. New York: Routledge.
4 Ibid.
5 Orfield, M. (2002). American Metropolitics. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press and Orfield,, G. and Chungmei Lee (2007). Historic Reversals, Accelerating Resegregation and the Need for New Integration Strategies. UCLA Civil Rights Project. Retrieved on June 1, 2008 from Powell, John (September 2008). Written testimony for National Commission on Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity: The State of Fair Housing in America. at
6 Exurban areas are defined as “communities located on the urban fringe that have at least 20% of their workers commuting to jobs in an urbanized area, exhibit low housing density, and have relatively high population growth” Berube, Singer, Frey & Wilson, October 2006. “Finding Exurbia: America’s Fast Growing Communities at the Metropolitan Fringe”. The Brookings Institution, LivingCensus series.
7 Orfield, M. (2002). American Metropolitics. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press.
8 Ibid.
9 The figures presented in the following two sections are derived from Gary Orfield’s recent report, “Reviving the Goals of an Integrated Society: A 21st Century Challenge.” Los Angeles: UCLA Civil Rights Project, available at


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News Summary

Please send us your news
Please send reports, documents, court decisions, comments or suggestions for topics to: The Integration Report, Editor Genevieve Siegel-Hawley, at
We are looking for any information regarding changes to transportation routes that may adversely affect racial diversity in schools. Please let us know if these issues are being discussed in your community.

Parents protest changes in student assignment plan
Many fear lower quality education

Nearly 200 angry parents flooded Eastern High School last night to protest changes to the Jefferson County (Kentucky( Public Schools’ student assignment plan. More than a year after the district replaced race-based integration with a plan based on socioeconomics, its elementary assignment system has been revamped. But the district is still considering revised boundaries for 16 high schools and 20 middle schools by 2010 (February 20, 2009).

TUSD could use public feedback on plan for future
The Tucson Unified School District has been under a desegregation federal court order for about 30 years, and the goals of that case — to ensure equal access and educational opportunities for all students — will continue in the district, even as the actual court case winds down this year (February 20, 2009).

President of Orange County NAACP says OCPS is not desegregated
Rev. Randolph Bracy, president of the local NAACP cooperation is critical in the Florida district’s plans to be declared “unitary” or desegregated. OCPS cannot move through the courts without his help.

School diversity policy discussion Thursday
Supporters and critics of the Wake County school system will meet Thursday to discuss the impact of the district’s student diversity policy.Topics will include the 1976 merger of the Raleigh City and Wake County schools, diversity in student assignment, neighborhood schools and school resegregation (February 24, 2009).

New school zone plan could hurt poorest neighborhoods
Families in some of Boston’s poorest neighborhoods would have the worst odds of getting into a good-quality school under a new assignment plan unveiled this month by School Superintendent Carol R. Johnson. The plan, which aims to save millions of dollars in fuel costs by shortening bus routes, would scrap the system’s three sprawling school assignment zones, in favor of five smaller ones (February 25, 2009).

School zone plan to be reworked;
Johnson cites lack of equal access

Boston School Superintendent Carol R. Johnson will make changes to her school assignment proposal after an analysis revealed unequal opportunities for students in different parts of the city, she said last night (February 26, 2009).

Beyond the busing era
MORE than any time since the 1970s battles over school desegregation in Boston, the political climate is favorable for the restoration of neighborhood schools. But first, Superintendent Carol Johnson must prove that every school in the city has the potential to deliver a good education and that savings on cross-city transportation will be enough to offset any disruption to families (February 26, 2009).

What busing really does to kids
Who ever liked riding the bus to school? In endless teen flicks and in our own psyches, the yellow school bus holds a unique place in the story of how American kids come of age – the flying objects and hard cruelties; the bully, the bus driver, and the outcast you hoped wouldn’t sit next to you. Starting in the late 1960s, the school bus also became a powerful social symbol (March 1, 2009).

Judge faults Westchester County on desegregation efforts
A federal judge has ruled that for years Westchester County misrepresented its efforts to desegregate overwhelmingly white communities when it applied for federal housing funds. Between 2000 and 2006, while the county sought and received more than $50 million in federal housing aid, it left it up to each community to decide where lower-income housing was to be built, according to a lawsuit filed in 2007 by the Anti-Discrimination Center, a Manhattan nonprofit organization (February 27, 2009).

Seattle parents, NAACP cry racism over school closures
Local parents and a civil rights organization are calling for a federal investigation into school closures announced by the Seattle School Board earlier this year.
The parents and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People claim the school board’s decisions had racist roots (February 27, 2009).

Wake, Charlotte schools test even
Two approaches to assigning low-income students yield little difference in results

A newly released report on academic performance says there’s not much difference in student test scores in the Wake County and Charlotte-Mecklenburg school systems despite their different policies on the assignment of low-income pupils (February 26, 2009).
Wake leader backs busing for school diversity
Those working to dismantle the Wake schools’ assignment policy should expect a fight from the new chairman of the county board of commissioners. For Harold H. Webb, 83, continuing the busing of students to achieve economic diversity is merely the continuation of a lifelong struggle for racial equality (February 27, 2009).

Chattanooga: Equity?
55 years after Brown v. Board of Education, Hamilton County Schools wrestling with balanced education for all students

Rafar Springs sees students like himself every day. More than 96 percent of those who attend Howard School for Academics and Technology and the majority of his Highland Park neighbors are black. More than half of Hamilton County Schools students attend a school where at least 75 percent of their peers are of the same race, records show (March 1, 2009).

Are ‘newcomer’ schools inherently segregation?
Immigration: Schools balance student needs with desire to belong

Jeff Sorensen’s students are wary of strangers. A mix of sixth, seventh and eighth graders from impoverished and war-torn countries, they thrive on routine. Sorensen’s “newcomers” program at Glendale Middle School is meant to ease non-English speaking refugees and immigrants into their new surroundings. Students of the school within a school are segregated from the regular student body most of the day, enjoying specialized instruction and smaller class sizes. But a community activist alleges the program isolates kids and constitutes a form of “institutional racism.” (March 1, 2009)

TUSD’s post-deseg plan is a failure
Representatives for African-American plaintiffs agree with the Star’s editorial that the Tucson Unified School District’s post-desegregation-case plan is “jargon-laden,” “needs translation” and “reads like a report written by professional educators and lawyers” (March 2, 2009).

Melancon seat open
District judge achieves ‘senior status’

U.S. District Judge Tucker Melancon has entered into partial retirement and his seat is now vacant, according to U.S. Court documents. Of the high-profile cases Melancon has presided over, two are still ongoing – the Evangeline and St. Landry parish school boards’ desegregation cases. If a presumed moderate or liberal Obama appointee takes over the desegregation cases, the dynamics of the cases could change, UL political science professor Rick Swanson said (March 1, 2009).

Schools grow diverse as immigrant families migrate to suburbs
Young immigrant families are bailing out of Minneapolis and streaming into the suburbs to such an extent that school districts south of the river could soon be teaching more immigrant children than Minneapolis is, the latest figures show (March 4, 2009).

McClintock Middle is portrait of lost diversity
Since busing ended, poverty level, racial isolation has risen.
If Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools shuffled students to reflect the district’s makeup, schools would look a lot like McClintock Middle did in 2002, a roughly even mix of black and white, poor and middle-class students. But in the six years following the end of court-ordered desegregation, McClintock has lost about 300 white and middle-class students. The poverty level shot from 47 percent to 72percent. White students now make up 13 percent of a shrunken school.

Metco grads lag on college choices; More likely to enroll in less-selective schools
Nearly 90 percent of high school students in the Metco program are going on to college, far surpassing the rate for minority students in the Boston public schools. But Metco graduates of suburban high schools, which traditionally have been feeders for top-tier universities, attend decidedly less selective and prestigious colleges than their classmates (March 8, 2009).

Minneapolis wants out of desegregation school district
Some fear that a pullout by Minneapolis schools could spell the end of the West Metro Education Program.

Minneapolis schools want to pull the plug on its participation in the Twin Cities’ first desegregation district, charging it isn’t succeeding in its lofty goals. Some say such a move has the potential to cripple the two-decade effort to bring more racial balance to Twin Cities schools (February 23, 2009).

Standing room only crowd tells Mpls. school officials: Keep voluntary integration program
Minneapolis public schools officials came face to face Thursday night with a standing-room-only crowd of parents and other supporters who said their decision to leave the Twin Cities’ first voluntary integration program is a bad move based on contorted logic.
“I don’t want you to pull out [of the West Metro Education Program, or WMEP], but even if you do, Minneapolis schools’ problems will not be reformed,” said Leticia Brown, a North Side parent with children in both districts. “But you will have succeeded in dismantling a successful school” (March 6, 2009).

Minneapolis to table plan to leave integration district
The Minneapolis school board on Tuesday night backed off a plan to leave the Twin Cities’ oldest voluntary integration district. Parents and other WMEP supporters, including the University of Minnesota’s Institute on Race and Poverty and the NAACP, criticized the district’s reasons for wanting to withdraw from the integration district at a packed hearing last week (March 10, 2009).

New rules for transfers between districts
The rules have changed for Douglas and Sarpy County parents who want their children to transfer school districts. For years, the interdistrict option enrollment program was largely regulated through a first-come, first-served system or a random lottery. No longer (March 9, 2009).

Parent fights Nashville school rezoning
Justice Department asked to intervene

Keith Caldwell isn’t the kind of parent people expect to drive local school board policy. The 10th of 11 children, Caldwell was born to a single mother and raised in a Nashville housing project. He isn’t rich. He doesn’t hold a public office. But Caldwell, the father of two school-age children and a heating-and-air technician turned community activist, has sparked a U.S. Justice Department investigation of Metro’s much-debated student assignment plan (March 8, 2009).

Court hears suit on school district’s race policy
The California Court of Appeal heard oral arguments yesterday regarding whether the Berkeley Unified School District’s use of race in elementary school enrollment placement is discriminatory. The court ruled in April that the plan was not in violation of Proposition 209, the 1996 amendment prohibiting educational decisions based on race, ethnicity or gender.

Berkeley schools enrollment policy, court says
A state appeals court breathed new life Tuesday into campus integration efforts, ruling that Berkeley does not violate California’s ban on racial preferences when it considers the makeup of students’ neighborhoods in deciding where they will go to school (March 18, 2009).

Champaign, Illinois school diversity
That’s why board members are looking ahead to how they can keep classrooms diverse.
The board will vote to use income as the main factor in deciding where your kid goes to school (March 9, 2009).

Lakeville district addresses its diversity gap with plans for new magnet schools, integration
Facing a growing disparity in minority students with its neighbor, Lakeville school leaders are pushing plans for new magnet school programs to encourage integration with the Burnsville-Eagan-Savage school district (March 11, 2009).

Roanoke school leaders consider changing attendance zones
Roanoke city school leaders are considering changing attendance zones. The city of Roanoke’s public school attendance zones have been in place since 1971. Designed 38 years ago on the heels of desegregation, the plan’s primary goal then was to diversify schools. Sweeping changes could impact diversity, one of the cons to any plan of district-wide zone changes.

Roanoke school zoning options unveiled
Roanokers were shown the attendance zone proposals, bearing racial and financial magnitude.

Roanoke parents got their first look at proposed attendance zone changes for the next school year during a public meeting Tuesday night at Fallon Park Elementary School.
Redrawing the attendance areas represents one of the most significant changes to the school system in decades because it would send hundreds of students to schools closer to home, while changing the racial and socioeconomic makeup of many elementary schools in a way that would make them less diverse (March 11, 2009).

School diversity a concern in district rezoning
A proposal to redraw school attendance lines has forced Roanoke to address race, poverty and disparities in achievement.
The school board has proposed redrawing the city’s desegregation-era attendance map to educate children closer to home, even though that would mean less diverse schools. On April 7, the board will pick one of three possible rezonings, carving out new elementary and middle school attendance areas and affecting more than half of the city’s elementary school population.

School plan outlined
Controversial changes aimed at integration will take effect this fall
After 43 years of effort, the end is in sight for the federal desegregation order against St. Landry Parish’s public schools (March 11, 2009).

SFUSD press release: Demand grows for SF public schools
Letters to 14,600 San Francisco families will be sent out today, notifying families which school their child will be admitted to next school year. The first assignment cycle (Round One) of the SFUSD student assignment process is now complete and the results point to a trend that more San Francisco families are choosing public schools (March 12, 2009).

Where education and assimilation collide
Walking the halls of Cecil D. Hylton High School outside Washington, it is hard to detect any trace of the divisions that once seemed fixtures in American society. But as old divisions vanish, waves of immigration have fueled new ones between those who speak English and those who are learning how (March 15, 2009).

School administrators refuse to go along with Open Choice program
Insisting that “enough is enough with unfunded mandates,” school administrators are refusing to go along with a request from the state’s commissioner of education to create 85 more slots for Hartford children to attend Bristol, CN schools (March 14, 2009).

New charter school expects OK on minority enrollment
Although the projected minority enrollment for Riverview Charter School in South Carolina doesn’t meet the goal set by state law, Riverview board members say they’re nonetheless pleased with the diversity of candidates recruited (March 14, 2009).

Legislature to scrutinize integration aid for schools
Some districts have used the money to plug budget gaps

Minnesota lawmakers were told more than three years ago that the state’s integration aid to schools lacks focus and needs to be fixed. Now, they plan to take a look at those recommendations by the legislative auditor and start retooling why and how they distribute funds to promote integration. A Senate education committee takes up the issue today (March 15, 2009).

Bill proposal could force school districts merger
A proposed state law could force the Asheville City and Buncombe County school districts to consolidate, but most local officials are opposed to the plan. Under a plan by N.C. Senate Majority Leader Tony Rand, the state would force mergers by funding only one school system per county. No action on the bill has been taken (March 15, 2009).

Evangeline Parish desegregation: Judge says Ville Platte High to stay open
School at center of lengthy battle for unitary status

Ville Platte High School will stay open for at least one more year. U.S. District Judge Tucker Melancon made that announcement Thursday during a hearing with the U.S. Justice Department and the Evangeline Parish School Board. The predominantly black Ville Platte High is the center of the board’s 45-year-old desegregation lawsuit (March 20, 2009).

Consolidation plan OK’d
The Lawrence County, Alabama school board approved a proposal by a 3-2 vote Friday that would have the cash-strapped district consolidate its seven high schools into four and still remain in compliance with a federal court order to keep the district desegregated (March 20, 2009).

Multiracial pupils to be counted in a new way
Public schools in the Washington region and elsewhere are abandoning their check-one-box approach to gathering information about race and ethnicity in an effort to develop a more accurate portrait of classrooms transformed by immigration and interracial marriage. Next year, they will begin a separate count of students who are of more than one race (March 23, 2009).

School rezoning foes cite research
Clustering poor kids often harmful

A meeting organized by opponents of Metro Nashville schools’ rezoning plan began Saturday with a review of research indicating it won’t help students learn and ended with a discussion of community action against it (March 22, 2009).

A ‘stolen’ education
Police in the Rochester, New York, suburb of Greece recently arrested, jailed and delivered in chains to a local courthouse a 33-year-old brown-skinned woman named Yolanda Miranda, also known as Yolanda Hill. A judge read the charge of grand larceny and set Hill’s bail at $25,000. Her alleged crime? Using her mother’s suburban address and enrolling her children in the Greece public schools while living about nine miles away in Rochester (March 26, 2009).

Please send us your news
Please send reports, documents, court decisions, comments or suggestions for topics to: The Integration Report, Editor Genevieve Siegel-Hawley, at
We are looking for any information regarding changes to transportation routes that may adversely affect racial diversity in schools. Please let us know if these issues are being discussed in your community.

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Additional Resources for School Integration

“Bringing Children Together: Magnet Schools and Public Housing Redevelopment”
Now available at, and will be up shortly on the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute Web site ( The report stems from a February 2008 conference on public housing redevelopment, magnet schools and justice reinvestment.

“Court Mandated Education Reform: The San Francisco Experience and the Shaping of Educational Policy after Seattle-Louisville and Ho v. SFUSD“. Volume 4, Issue 2, Stanford Journal of Civil Liberties & Civil Rights, Pages 159-215. This research article, written by UCLA Professor and former Court Monitor Stuart Biegel, examines the arc of desegregation in the San Francisco Unified School District and has important implications for school districts around the country in the wake of the PICS decision.

Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real About Race In School
The New Press announces the publication of Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real About Race In School, edited by Mica Pollock. How should teachers and parents respond when children ask challenging questions about race? How should teachers handle the use of the “N-word” or discuss “achievement gaps” with colleagues? How can teachers avoid unwittingly making children of color speak on behalf of their entire group? While numerous books exist about race and race theory, Everyday Antiracism puts theory into practice by offering specific strategies for combating racism in the classroom. This book is available to order through or

Sheff Web Site, – This Web provides information regarding the Sheff desegregation case in Connecticut. To view the results of a recent statewide poll revealing broad based support for interdistrict desegregation programs, please visit

BuildingChoice Web Site, – This Web site is designed to help implement and maintain public school choice programs. Included are promising practices from a range of programs, tools, and links to many additional resources to support your choice efforts.

The School Law Blog, – Visit the School Law Blog for an important discussion of news and analysis of legal developments affecting schools, educators, and parents. Mark Walsh has been covering legal issues in education for more than 15 years for Education Week. He writes about school-related cases in the U.S. Supreme Court and in lower courts.

Still Looking to the Future: Voluntary K-12 School Integration; A Manual for Parents, Educators and Advocates. The NAACP Legal Defense Fund (LDF) and the Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles (CRP) are distributing the 2nd edition of their K-12 school integration manual which addresses the practical questions of what can be done to promote diversity and address the harms of racial isolation in schools.
To download the manual, visit or
To request hard copies or CDs of the manual and supplemental materials, please send an e-mail with your contact information and the number of copies requested to

Preserving Integration Options for Latino Students. The Mexican American Legal Defense Fund (MALDEF) and the Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles (CRP/PDC) are currently disseminating their collaboratively-written guide for parents, advocates and educators interested in promoting diversity and addressing the harms of Latino racial isolation in their schools.
To download the manual or for additional information, please visit CRP/PDF’s Web site at

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The Integration Report – Staff Members

Editor: Genevieve Siegel-Hawley
Editorial Assistant: Jared Sanchez
Editorial Committee: Erica Frankenberg, Gary Orfield, Laurie Russman
Webmaster: John Khuu

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The Integration Report is produced by the Initiative on School Integration at The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles, and is supported by a grant from the Open Society Institute.

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